Plasmodesmata (sl., plasmodesma) are membrane-lined cytoplasmic nano channels bridging neighboring plant cells. They mediate symplasmic (meaning, “cells being connected through their cytoplasm”) communication, facilitating cell-to-cell movement of various types of molecules that are small or free to diffuse or have non-cell autonomous characteristics. Plasmodesmata are also critical for whole plant responses as they function as gateways to long-distance, inter-organ communication.
Small nutrient molecules or non-cell autonomous signals/information molecules move via the cytoplasmic sleeve thought to form nano channels.
Plasmodesmata function as gateways to phloem-based long-distance communication.